| In vitreous humor, a diversity of proteins that can influence retinal physiology are present, including growth factors, hormones, proteins with transporter activity, and enzymes. The protein composition of vitreous humor has been described as being altered in a number of diseases. Therefore, detecting putative biomarkers for ocular illness or protein fluctuations with possible physiologic significance have been conducted, using proteomic approaches. This includes the identification of protein expression, presence (modification), structure, function and interaction, reveals the mechanism of ocular disease, and provides a basis for drug treatment. This article will review the application of vitreous proteomics in the study of ocular diseases.